On the first of January, this object becomes the center of universal attraction.
Until 1850, all refrigerators worked on the principle of an isolated chamber, covered with ice, until the American doctor John Gorey came up with the idea of creating an artificial cold. In his invention, he used compression cycle technology, which is used in modern refrigerators up to this day.
Later his technology was several times refined and remade thanks to the inventions of the absorption refrigeration machine, the compressor, which used ammonia, the principle of the heat pump, as well as the refrigerant freon, which has been used in all household refrigerators since 1930.
Ironically, in 1926, Leo Szilard and his teacher proposed a variant of the design of the absorption refrigerator. And this teacher was Albert Einstein, and this refrigerator was called Einstein's.
8. Long shelf-life
And there bacteria help us on the contrary, making sparkling wine so sparkling. During the fermentation (a biochemical process based on redox transformations of organic compounds by bacteria under anaerobic conditions), a large amount of carbon dioxide is released (not to be confused with carbonation, where the liquid is saturated with gas artificially).
The fermentation process takes place in a closed bottle, and the resulting gas creates pressure inside of 5 to 6 atmospheres (2.5-3 atmospheres for Prosecco), which is about twice the pressure in a car tire.
What does the pulp of tangerine contain? It contains sugars, organic acids (eg, citric), vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, rutin) and phytoncides-active substances that inhibit the growth and development of bacteria. And the peel of tangerine contains essential tangerine oil and vitamin-pigment, which mandarin skin owes its color.
And why tangerines have become an attribute of the new year's table? The fact is that the bulk of these fruits are grown in Turkey and Morocco, where the trees begin to bloom in the spring, and the fruits ripen from seven to nine months. And those tangerines that hit the shelves from May to August are grown in the southern hemisphere.
Moreover, tangerines are not only delicious but at the same time good for health. Scientists have proven that the aroma of these fruits helps to relieve stress, improves mood, invigorates and inspires. In addition, tangerines help the liver to break down toxins and protect it, reduce the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood and can help in the prevention of cancer: scientists from the U.S. found in the composition of tangerines anti-cancer substance salvestrol Q40.
The exact place and time of the invention of mayonnaise are not known for certain. It is likely that this sauce appeared independently in several regions of the Mediterranean, where olive oil and eggs were widely distributed. There is also a chance that mayonnaise came from Aioli sauce, consisting of garlic, ground with olive oil.
What is mayonnaise made of? It consists of vegetable oil, egg yolk, vinegar, lemon juice, salt, sugar, mustard and other seasonings. In industrial mayonnaise, refined oils are used, and milk and eggs are added in powder form.
There is a legend that mayonnaise can be used as a thermal paste for the computer. However, during the actual experiment, the computer was able to work with edible thermal paste only for 12 days. And with the help of mayonnaise, you can remove the stain from the fuel oil.
11. Fish in aspic
and jellied meat
The jelly itself, which is a part of fish in aspic and jellied meet, is a so-called colloidal solution, which when solidified turns into jelly. What is jelly?
These are homogeneous systems (the homogeneous systems whose components cannot be separated mechanically) filled with a liquid. The framework of the jelly is formed by molecules of high-molecular compounds.
The main difference between jelly and aspic is that it is not necessary to add gelatin when cooking jelly. Meat jelly is prepared by boiling gelatin from calves' legs and heads.
The first mention of the jelly is found in Domostroy, a book of teachings and instructions, dating back to the XVI century. However, it is almost certain that the jelly was invented much earlier, after the accidental freezing of beef broth.
The jelly is recommended to serve with horseradish or mustard.
For Russians, the tradition of burning a piece of paper with a recorded wish and drinking champagne with ashes is quite new. It gained popularity after the film "Christmas Trees", released in 2010.
Fans make a wish in this way, doctors advise choosing ordinary white paper, as harmful impurities can be in the color. But ash also contains calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus-the problem is that these trace elements are useful as fertilizers. In General, the amount of ash is too small to have any effect on the body. However, even this amount can cause poisoning in rare cases.
Another important problem that humanity has been struggling with for a long time is the increase in the shelf life of products.
And the main enemy there are the microorganisms that s these products. In order to suppress the activity of bacteria and microbes, people have come up with many ways known to us since childhood. The simplest and most common are salting, pickling and candying.
In a strong alkaline or acidic environment, microorganisms either feel extremely bad (as we all do at the end of the year) or are not able to survive at all. In addition to the usual salt, sugar and bite in the industry are also used food preservatives (the same E letters in the list of ingredients).
Another method of combating microorganisms, oddly enough, is to reduce the water content: drying, gelling, smoking.
But that's not all. To prevent these microorganisms from appearing in products, you can limit their access to the product. In order to do this, scientists have come up with sealed and vacuum packaging, replacing the oxygen atmosphere with gas (mostly inert). The following method is associated with critical temperatures (high and low). This can include sterilization, pasteurization (by the way, this is one of the two terms bearing the name of the scientist, Louis Pasteur, the second — Plato and Platonic love), as well as simple cooling or freezing. Finally, the irradiation of the product with x-rays or gamma radiation can help to the defeat the microorganisms or other useful bacteria that prevent the development of "competitors" (thus, for example, people make cheese, where the bacteria that formed it, prevent the development of other microorganisms in it).
That is why at the opening of the bottle, the cork is so actively torn out and can reach a speed of up to 100 km / h.
And the bubbles that appear in the glass are the subject of separate interest. In one bottle of champagne locked 10 million bubbles. Reaching the surface of the wine, these bubbles explode (a phenomenon called "Worthington jet"). The bubble rises to the surface and bursts, creating a micro-crater on it. Shrinking, this crater spews a trickle of champagne, which is scattered on the smallest drops, rising to a height of 10 centimeters from the surface. These same bubbles are filled with "surface-active" molecules, among them there are hundreds of aromatic ones, creating a cloud of aroma over a glass of champagne.
In addition, scientists have found out why streams of champagne bubbles rise from certain points of the glass. This is due to contact with the walls of the glass microscopic villi from the kitchen towel when rubbing and other random particles falling into the glass from the surrounding space. Molecules of carbon dioxide going into these microparticles and coalesce and form the bubbles.
(Russian traditional food)